Plant Sizes and Vocabulary

B&B? Pot 'N Pot? Below is a guide to understanding Horsford's plant sizes and growing.

B&B = Balled and burlapped
The plant grew in the ground and was dug by hand or with a tree spade. It was then wrapped with burlap and large trees are also placed in a wire basket for transport and handling. We call these field-dug plants. Some shrubs like our field-grown lilac and most large evergreens are B&B.
Field crew digging trees in growing fields in early spring
We dig trees and shrubs in early spring that will be B&B plants
Team member with balled and burlapped winterberry plants
B&B winterberry plants from our fields
Pot 'N Pot / PnP = Container Trees
This is a growing system at the nursery where container trees are grown within vessels the same size and submerged in the ground (think, a pot in a pot). The in-ground system moderates temperature and moisture reliably, and root pruning bags prevent circling roots.
Rows of fruit trees in pot-in-pot growing system
Pot 'N Pot growing system at the nursery
Container Sizes
We grow plants in a range of containers. We accept our own containers back for reuse. We cannot accept containers from other garden centers since they can differ in size or be different weights of material that don’t hold up in reuse.

From smallest to largest:
-Plugs – select perennial groundcovers like vinca and thyme
-3″ pots – annual flowers, vegetable starts, kitchen herbs, select perennials
-4-packs – annual flowers, vegetable starts, kitchen herbs
-Flat – used to describe 18, 3″ pots or cell trays of 50 small plugs
-1-gallon – most perennials
-2-gallon – larger or faster-growing perennials like peonies, grasses and hosta
-3-gallon – shrubs, trees
-5-gallon – shrubs, trees
-7-gallon – most fruit trees, trees
-10-gallon – trees, some fruit trees
-15-gallon – trees, some fruit trees
Team member with perennial grasses in two sizes
Perennial grasses in one-gallon and 3" pot containers
Two-year = One-gallon
We use two-year to describe a perennial that was seeded or planted, grown for a season, and then overwintered at the nursery, making it two years old. It means the plant has survived a Vermont winter under our care.
Team member holding astilbe in perennial growing area
Perennial astilbe in one-gallon containers
CAL = Caliper
Caliper measures the largest diameter of a tree’s trunk. Trees four inches and larger are measured 12″ above the ground. We begin pricing trees by the caliper at 1.75″, up to 7″ and sometimes even larger. Trees measured in caliper are usually B&B.
Nursery in spring
Many B&B trees are measured in caliper
Examples of single stem clump and multistem trees
Single stem birch, clump birch, and multi-stem magnolia
Single Stem, Clump, and Multi-Stem
Terms used to indicate the number of trunks certain plants have. Single stem is a typical tree with one trunk. Clump means multiple single-stem trees were grown together to achieve a plant that has multiple trunks (ie: birch, serviceberry). Multi-stem shrubs or trees have a single base but they branch low to the ground (ie: magnolia). Multi-stem plants create density with multiple branches, versus growing individual suckers from the ground (ie: lilac).

"How will I get it home?"
Here is what to expect when transporting your plant:

B&B - some smaller B&B shrubs may fit in an SUV, B&B trees usually require a pickup truck. Please bring a tarp of some sort when it’s time to bring your plant home. They protect branches from rubbing and leaves from falling off while driving. We do have tarps available for purchase. We’re happy to help you load and tie up your plants for transport.
Team member with large balled and burlapped trees
B&B trees require a pickup. We can help you tie them up for transport.
Containers – those up to 5-gallon typically fit in a regular vehicle. Seven, 10 and 15-gallon containers may be able to fit in an SUV, but it just depends on the species, time of year, and size of vehicle. It also depends on the number of trees or plants you’re bringing home.
Team member with fruit trees in 7-gallon containers
Fruit trees in 7-gallon containers
Team member with container shrubs
Flowering shrubs in containers
As always, it is best to visit the nursery with your vehicle to double-check. We do offer delivery and planting services.
Horsford delivery truck and fall foliage
We offer timely delivery and skilled planting services